Original Research

Reward and attitudes: The unintended outcomes of an effective performance appraisal

Solomon M. Semakula-Katende, Erik D. Schmikl, Theuns Gert Pelser
SA Journal of Human Resource Management | Vol 11, No 1 | a545 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.4102/sajhrm.v11i1.545 | © 2013 Solomon M. Semakula-Katende, Erik D. Schmikl, Theuns Gert Pelser | This work is licensed under CC Attribution 4.0
Submitted: 27 March 2013 | Published: 09 October 2013

About the author(s)

Solomon M. Semakula-Katende, Graduate School of Business and Government Leadership, North-West University, Mafikeng, South Africa
Erik D. Schmikl, Cranefield College, Pretoria, South Africa
Theuns Gert Pelser, Graduate School of Business and Government Leadership, North-West University, Mafikeng, South Africa


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Abstract

Orientation: Focus was on the role of reward and attitudes as major determinants in enhancing the effectiveness of performance appraisal systems.

Research purpose: To develop a structural model from the qualitative and quantitative findings from which to address the identified gaps in order to improve the effectiveness of appraisals.

Motivation for the study: The attention that role players tended to give to the rewarding of employees during the appraisal process made it appear as the only important determinant of an appraisal’s success. In appraisals in many public institutions, reward has been given unnecessary prominence over other drivers, such as management and development. That led most key role players (leaders, managers and employees) to perceive the current employee performance management and development system (EPMDS) to be purely for monetary (salary increments and cash bonuses) and non-monetary (promotion) purposes, which, in turn, compromised its effectiveness.

Research design, approach and method: Structural equation modelling (SEM) was utilised as a statistical technique for testing and estimating causal relations using a combination of statistical data and qualitative causal assumptions. This allowed both confirmatory and exploratory modelling to be undertaken, which is suited to both theory testing and theory development. A triangulation of quantitative (questionnaire) and qualitative (interview) study was conducted. A total of 300 questionnaires were distributed to nine government hospitals in the Free State province, namely Mofumahadi Manapo Mopeli, Dihlabeng, and Boitumelo regional hospitals, as well as Elizabeth Ross, Thebe, Phekolong, Mpumelelo, Reitz and Ficksburg district hospitals. There was a high response rate of 96 per cent, a total of 287 completed questionnaires. Respondents ranged from top executives, middle management, line management, to employees of all categories.

Main findings: Reward and attitudes were found to the unintended outcomes of an effective performance appraisal.

Practical/managerial implications: Remunerative rewards should be part of a holistic appraisal approach and not simply a one-sided approach.

Contribution/value-add: This article addressed the void or the wrong perception regarding the role of reward and attitudes in appraisals, and established that they were outcomes, and not determinants, of appraisal effectiveness.

Keywords

Performance Management; Reward; Attitudes; Performance Appraisal

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