Original Research

Intention as a determinant of Islamic work culture in Indonesia based on the modified theory of planned behavior

Moehammad Reza Arfiansyah, Achmad Ushuluddin, Mohammad Affan, Waryani Fajar Riyant
SA Journal of Human Resource Management | Vol 21 | a2022 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.4102/sajhrm.v21i0.2022 | © 2023 Moehammad Reza Arfiansyah, Achmad Ushuluddin, Mohammad Affan, Waryani Fajar Riyant | This work is licensed under CC Attribution 4.0
Submitted: 21 June 2022 | Published: 10 February 2023

About the author(s)

Moehammad Reza Arfiansyah, Department of Management, Sekolah Tinggi Ilmu Ekonomi Ganesha, Jakarta Selatan, Indonesia
Achmad Ushuluddin, Department of Islamic Guidance and Counseling, Faculty of Psychology and Education, Universitas Al Azhar, Jakarta Selatan, Indonesia
Mohammad Affan, Department of Language and Literature, Faculty of Language and Literature, Sekolah Tinggi Agama Islam Darul Ulum Banyuanyar, Pamekasan, Indonesia
Waryani Fajar Riyant, Department of Theology and Islamic Philosophy, Faculty of Ushuluddin and Islamic Thought, Universitas Islam Negeri Sunan Kalijaga Yogyakarta, Indonesia


Orientation: This article describes the new work culture values in Indonesia using the modified theory of planned behaviour (TPB).

Research purpose: The researcher modifies the TPB by replacing the variables of perceived behavioural control with organisational culture, subjective norms with peer references and attitude with spirituality. The modification is then used to predict the work behaviour of religious organisations based on work culture values in the Ministry of Religious Affairs of the Republic of Indonesia.

Motivation for the study: The TPB has been considerably modified and expanded to predict various types of organizational behaviour in different fields. However, the modifications did not reduce or change the substance and have not yet been applied to religious organizations. In contrast to previous studies, this article modifies the TPB from its original form and applies it to religious organizations in Indonesia.

Research approach/design and method: This article employs a quantitative method. Primary data include samples collected from all Regional Offices of the Ministry of Religious Affairs in 34 provinces in Indonesia, while data analysis uses structural equation modelling and structural models.

Main findings: This article finds that the most decisive work culture value in the organisation of the Ministry of Religious Affairs of the Republic of Indonesia is spirituality (intention).

Implications: Results of this study have extended the implementation of the TPB by modifying perceived behaviour control (PBC) with organisational culture, subjective norm with peer reference and attitude with spirituality to predict organisational values (Nilai Budaya Kerja – NBK)-based work behaviour at the Regional Offices of the Ministry of Religious Affairs with compliance intention as a mediating/intervening variable, which acquired positive and significant results.

Contribution: Theoretically speaking, the findings in this study provide empirical evidence that modifying TPB reinforces TPB’s applicability to predict compliance intention and work behaviour. Practically speaking, this research provides recommendations for improving the implementation of the five organisational values to the Ministry of Religious Affairs in three aspects. First, enhance Civil Servants’ (Pegawai Negeri Sipil – PNS) spirituality by providing substantial understanding of religious values. Second, intensify the role and support of structural leaders, particularly echelon 1, 2 and 3 officials so they provide good examples in the implementation of NBK. Third, strengthen organisational culture at the Ministry of Religious Affairs by creating result/impact-oriented programme planning (result/impact oriented government).


intention; organisational culture; peer reference; spirituality; compliance intention; work behaviour


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