Original Research

Mental toughness and competitive performance of Indonesian hotel supervisors

Lieli Suharti, Rakhel P. Kurniawati
SA Journal of Human Resource Management | Vol 21 | a2244 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.4102/sajhrm.v21i0.2244 | © 2023 Lieli Suharti, Rakhel P. Kurniawati | This work is licensed under CC Attribution 4.0
Submitted: 15 February 2023 | Published: 28 August 2023

About the author(s)

Lieli Suharti, Department of Management, Faculty of Economics and Business, Satya Wacana Christian University, Salatiga, Indonesia
Rakhel P. Kurniawati, Human Resources Department, Satya Wacana Christian University, Salatiga, Indonesia


Orientation: Employees need mental toughness to perform in crisis and increasingly competitive environments. Mental toughness is a psychological construct that arguably motivates individual to perform well and confidently.

Research purpose: This study aims to investigate the impacts of self-esteem and perceived inclusion on mental toughness, the impact of mental toughness on competitive performance and the role of coaching in moderating the impacts of self-esteem and perceived inclusion on mental toughness.

Motivation for the study: Mental toughness from the human resource management (HRM) perspective remains understudied. This study is expected to contribute to the literature on individuals’ positive behaviours in organisations.

Research approach/design and method: This study is an explanatory research with 174 supervisors of Indonesian hotels as the respondents selected using a judgemental sampling technique. The data are analysed using partial least squares structural equation modelling with the SmartPLS 3.0 programme.

Main findings: The findings show significant effects of self-esteem and perceived inclusion on mental toughness. Further, mental toughness affects supervisors’ competitive performance. This study also finds that coaching moderates the association between perceived inclusion and mental toughness. However, coaching cannot moderate the effect of self-esteem on mental toughness.

Practical/managerial implications: Organisations can develop their employees’ mental toughness by bolstering their self-esteem, promoting an organisational culture that embraces inclusion and implementing regular and continuous coaching for employees.

Contribution/value-add: This study analyses mental toughness from the HRM perspective. Accordingly, the implementation of the findings in organisations arguably contributes to individuals’ workplace positive behaviours.


mental toughness; self-esteem; perceived inclusion; competitive performance; coaching.

JEL Codes

J24: Human Capital • Skills • Occupational Choice • Labor Productivity; M12: Personnel Management • Executives; Executive Compensation; O15: Human Resources • Human Development • Income Distribution • Migration

Sustainable Development Goal

Goal 3: Good health and well-being


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Crossref Citations

1. Empowering women: navigating work environment challenges with mental toughness
Prabha Subramanian, Monica Gallant, Pranab K. Pani
Gender in Management: An International Journal   year: 2024  
doi: 10.1108/GM-01-2024-0045