About the Author(s)


Ndivhudzannyi R. Mukwevho symbol
Faculty of Management, Southern Business School, Johannesburg, South Africa

Mark H.R. Bussin Email symbol
Faculty of Management, Southern Business School, Johannesburg, South Africa

Citation


Mukwevho, N.R., & Bussin, M.H.R. (2021). Exploring the role of a total rewards strategy in retaining South African police officers in Limpopo province. SA Journal of Human Resource Management/SA Tydskrif vir Menslikehulpbronbestuur, 19(0), a1391. https://doi.org/10.4102/sajhrm.v19i0.1391

Original Research

Exploring the role of a total rewards strategy in retaining South African police officers in Limpopo province

Ndivhudzannyi R. Mukwevho, Mark H.R. Bussin

Received: 30 Apr. 2020; Accepted: 12 Mar. 2021; Published: 21 Apr. 2021

Copyright: © 2021. The Author(s). Licensee: AOSIS.
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Orientation: The South African Police Service is facing significant challenges in retaining its staff. A total rewards strategy could help the South African Police Service to enhance staff retention.

Research purpose: This study explored the role of a total rewards strategy in retaining South African police officers in Limpopo province.

Motivation of the study: The shortage of police officials has a negative effect on the South African Police Service’s endeavours to retain its employees.

Research approach, design and method: This was a qualitative research study where semi-structured interviews were conducted on the sample size of 14 police officers in Limpopo.

Main findings: The outcomes revealed that performance management, career development and employees’ compensation were ineffectively applied to police stations. Employees were firmly thinking about leaving the police because of poor rewards. The members were genuinely happy with their work benefits and work–life balance.

Practical/managerial implications: The South African Police Services should implement total reward strategy to improve staff retention.

Contribution/value-add: This study presented challenging areas in the reward framework of the South African Police Service employees and the subsequent impact thereof on their turnover intentions.

Keywords: benefits; compensation; retention; total rewards; performance management; remuneration.

Introduction

Orientation

The South African Police Service (SAP) in Limpopo is tasked with the responsibility of creating a safe and secure environment for all people in Limpopo province. This duty can be performed only if the police department retains determined and skilled police officers. The problem is that police officers are constantly leaving the department for better remuneration and rewards in other departments or for other occupations (Mofokeng, 2015, p. 1).

The success of any organisation lies within the competency of its employees. As a result, the organisation should place more emphasis on the acquisition and retention of quality employees (Anku-Tsede, 2013, p. 174).

Mabaso and Dlamini (2018, p. 1) point out that global economy pressures organisations to attract and retain skilled employees. According to Makhuzeni and Barkhuizen (2015, p. 1), the best method for the organisation to attract and retain skilled employees is to have a good reward strategy.

The SAP’s human resource planning has always been a priority, but the retention of the police officers is becoming problematic (Mofokeng, 2015, p. 34). Hlengane and Bayat (2013, p. 86) point out that factors contributing to the police officers’ turnover are lack of motivation by management, lack of personal career growth, inappropriate treatment by supervisors, lack of appreciation by management, lack of recognition, lack of promotion opportunities, job dissatisfaction and low salaries. Low morale of police officers leads to high rates of absenteeism, resignations and poor performance. The SAP’s task is to review the approaches and retention strategies to deal with recognition, career development, rewards and benefits, compensations and performance management (SAPS Organisational Climate Survey Report, 2017, p. 71).

Research purpose and objectives

The purpose of the study was to explore the role of a total rewards strategy in retaining South African police officers in Limpopo province. The general objective of this study was to determine the role of a total rewards strategy in retaining police officers in Limpopo province. Furthermore, specific objectives were to conceptualise total rewards from literature, to determine police officers’ view of the present condition of total rewards within the SAP and to determine the extent to which rewards influence police officers’ decision to leave the SAP.

Literature review

Retaining employees

The retention of skilled employees is a critical strategic human resource management issue and is necessary for the success of the organisation (Theron, Barkhuizen, & Du Plessis, 2014, p. 2). Potgieter, Coetzee and Ferreira (2018, p. 2) point out that an organisational retention strategy contributes to the employees’ intention to stay or leave an organisation. According to Smit, Stanz and Bussin (2015, p. 3), the term retention is described as actions or plans executed by top management with the intention to keep employees from leaving the organisation.

These actions include a total rewarding system, interrelations, individual career growth and conducive working conditions. It is essential that when the organisation recruits new employees, it implements a reward strategy to retain the employees.

The retention of employees is vital to the enhancement of organisational performance and profitability. The failure of staff retention increases the organisational expenditure in the form of replacement costs ranging from recruitment, employee screening and hiring activities, orientation, induction and training costs (Mayende & Musenze, 2018, p. 1). Therefore, for the organisation to attract and retain its employees, it must have an appropriate total reward strategy (Mabaso & Dlamini, 2018, p. 3).

Total rewards

Smit et al. (2015, p. 3) define total rewards as a term used to depict the compensation framework in the workplace.

The reward can be cash as well as non-fiscal esteem, an immediate or circuitous reward or a natural or potentially outward reward that is offered to a worker in the trading of the work performed.

The total rewards concept originates from its comprehensive methodology that contains both the financial and non-fiscal rewards that a department may provide for its workers (Bwowe & Marongwe, 2018, p. 2).

In this research, the model of total rewards by the World at Work Association (2019, p. 1) was utilised as a structure to investigate the police’s impression of total rewards in the work environment. This model of total rewards comprises six elements: compensation, benefits, work–life effectiveness, recognition, performance management and talent development. These components represent the tool kit from which an organisation chooses to offer and align a value proposition that results in satisfied, engaged and productive employees who, in turn, create desired organisational performance.

As indicated by this model, the department’s total rewards technique ought to have every one of six components (Makhuzeni & Barkhuizen, 2015, p. 2). The descriptions of these components are as follows:

Compensation

Compensation is regularly utilised conversely with pay or wage and reward; however, compensation does not allude only to rewards, pay and gains, but it additionally incorporates, for example, accomplishing individual objectives, self-governance and all the more challenging employments (Warnich, Carrell, Elbert, & Hartfield, 2015, p. 403). Factors such as compensation, recognition and management support were found to encourage employees to stay in their public institution (Theron et al., 2014, p. 7). According to Shelton and Renard (2015, p. 4), the financial compensation received by employees from their organisation plays a vital role in reward management, because employees view it as an indication of their value to the organisation. To gain competitive advantage, most organisations are designing specific individual compensation and reward systems, especially for talented employees, with the ultimate aim of attracting and retaining them (Schlechter, Faught, & Bussin, 2014, p. 3). Globalisation pressures organisations to develop customised compensation reward strategies in order to attract and retain skilled employees (Makhuzeni & Barkhuizen, 2015, p. 2). The available research conducted at Kerensa police station in Gauteng province points out that police officers receive poor salaries (Faull, 2011, p. 17).

Benefits

Benefits are monetary or non-budgetary payments that workers receive from the employer. Employers offer benefits such as retirement or unemployment, death, accident and sickness (Makhuzeni & Barkhuizen, 2015, p. 2). Apart from pay or salary, the employer provides certain benefits such as sickness pay, a housing allowance, medical coverage, adaptable working hours and telecommuting (Joshi, 2015, p. 77).

Work–life effectiveness

Work–life effectiveness refers to the extent to which the employee is satisfied with his or her work and family role. It also refers to the balance between the work and the rest of the employee’s life activities (Munro, Oosthuizen, & Coetzee, 2016, p. 3). Makhuzeni and Barkhuizen (2015, p. 3) point out that flexibility in the workplace improves customer service and employee retention.

Performance management and recognition

If the organisation recognises and rewards high performance, employees show high performance; but if the employees see no relationship between high performance and rewards, they do not excel in their job (Warnich et al., 2015, p. 407). Performance rewards or appraisals are essential instruments to improve employee performance. Organisations with a performance management system can easily identify employee developmental areas and implement planning processes. Performance recognition is crucial for the enhancement of worker spirit and subsequently lessens pressure, absenteeism and turnover (Makhuzeni & Barkhuizen, 2015, p. 3). If the organisation has a good performance management system, it can easily identify and address poor performance issues. A good performance management system helps the organisation to develop employees by stretching their capabilities. Doing so will provide opportunities for them to grow (McPheat, 2010, p. 9). Research by Faull (2011, p. 18) points out that recognition and motivation are required within the police environment for effective service delivery.

Talent development

Koekemoer (2014, p. 1) points out that South African organisations are encountering what is known as a ‘brain drain’, which refers to the loss of talented workers. In order to avert this crisis, organisations should set up great conditions and human resource practices that will cater to the distinctive vocational needs of different staffs. According to Diedericks, Rothmann and Swart (2013, p. 1), South African human resource managers are experiencing challenges of talent retention, lack of staff recognition and performance management problems.

Employers can add to their workers’ vocation improvement by supporting professional advancement activities within the organisation (Makhuzeni & Barkhuizen, 2015, p. 3).

Makhuzeni and Barkhuizen (2015, p. 9) applied a total rewards model to an example of teachers in North West. The discoveries demonstrated that a total rewards model of the World at Work Association is useful as a reason to benchmark specialist rewards. In the study, it was proved that the total rewards model can be applied within a public department including the police.

Research design

Research approach

A subjective research approach utilising semi-structured interviews dependent on the World at Work Association’s system of the total rewards methodology was utilised. As indicated by Bryman and Bell (2014, p. 31), subjective research underscores the use of words, pictures and activities when gathering and breaking down information. Makhuzeni and Barkhuizen (2015, p. 4) posit that subjective research tries to comprehend a given research theme from the perspectives of the population it includes.

Research strategy

A case study analysis technique was applied in this exploration. A case study investigation is portrayed as a top-to-bottom investigation of the present events in their current setting (Bryman & Bell, 2014, p. 42). Themes were extracted from the semi-structured interviews and compared with the significant literature review to produce an all-inclusive outcome. In this study, the first participant interviewed was the senior manager (director) of human resource (career management) and the second participant was the manager (deputy director) of human resource (personnel management); both participants were working in the provincial head office at the time of this research.

Research method

Research setting

The research was conducted at the SAP in Limpopo province. The targeted participants were 16 but 14 were interviewed, and the other 2 withdrew without giving reasons; and because of time strain, no replacement was made. The interview was conducted as follows: one senior human resource manager (director/brigadier) and one human resource manager (deputy director/colonel) from provincial human resource management. Seven participants from three police stations, namely, Morebeng, Musina and Bandelierkop police stations. Five participants had resigned from the SAP in Limpopo. Table 1 depicts the demographic profile of the respondents.

TABLE 1: Demographic profile of respondents.
Entrée and establishing researcher roles

Permission to execute the research was obtained from the provincial commissioner in Limpopo province.

After approval was obtained, station commanders of the selected police stations were approached for consent to conduct the study. Details of police officers who resigned from the police department were obtained from the provincial personnel management component. The purpose of the research was explained to all participants. The research was subjected to ethics approval prior to commencement. Ethical endorsement was acquired from the Southern Business School before the execution of the study.

Research participants and sampling methods

The unit of examination for this study were police officers from the selected police stations in Limpopo province. Fourteen individuals were picked through purposive sampling to participate in the investigation.

Data collection methods

Collection of data was performed through interviews using a semi-structured interview guide, with the interviewees answering the questions freely and the interviewer probing to obtain more answers (Bryman & Bell, 2014, p. 42).

According to Makhuzeni and Barkhuizen (2015, p. 4), the advantage of qualitative interviewing is that the researcher has the opportunity to learn about other elements related to the topic; components of which the analyst would be otherwise uninformed. Moreover, the researcher additionally gets an opportunity to hear the individuals’ view concerning the factors of significance in the study.

This study depended on the total rewards model of the World at Work Association (2019). Police officers were asked and requested to exhibit how they experience and had experienced the reward practices as determined in this model. The subjects were questioned as to whether these reward practices could affect or had influenced their choice to leave the police department.

Data recording

The researcher accurately recorded the collected data in the following manner: audio recordings and transcriptions thereof and by taking rough notes amidst the interviews to give data concerning the members’ non-verbal correspondence. The information were deciphered verbatim. All information gathered was marked and safely stored on a computer and on flash drives.

Strategies employed to ensure quality data and integrity

In this study, the issue of trustworthiness was ensured through adherence to Lincoln and Guba’s (1985) framework, as cited in Bryman and Bell (2014, p. 44). The framework on trustworthiness in qualitative studies consists of conformability, credibility, transferability and dependability. Conformability is concerned with the research procedure, regardless of whether the ends rely upon the subjects and states of the request instead of on the inquirer (Bryman & Bell, 2014, p. 45). To guarantee this rule, all eye-to-eye interviews with members were audio recorded and translated verbatim. Dependability refers to whether the process of study is consistent and reasonably stable over time and across researchers and methods (Bryman & Bell, 2014, p. 45). To guarantee this standard, the researcher, from the starting point of the investigation, maintained continuous contact with participants to guarantee that the final outcomes incorporated honest portrayals of what the subjects were encountering. The researcher maintained close contact and conducted continuous follow-ups with the supervisor for guidance. Credibility refers to whether the findings of the study make sense and are credible to the people being studied and to readers (Bryman & Bell, 2014, p. 45). To guarantee this, the researcher contacted participants to countercheck whether their thoughts were well translated and exhibited without changing their core significance.

Data analysis

In this study, thematic data analysis method was applied. The aim of thematic analysis is to distinguish, break down and depict themes in the gathered information. The researcher led a deductive topical examination which is guided by the themes identified in the past research on the topic. Analysis was conducted in phases in adherence to Braun and Clarke’s (2006) six phases of thematic analysis, as cited in Bryman and Bell (2014, p. 351). The six phases of thematic analysis entail the process of transcribing data, generating initial codes, searching for themes, reviewing themes, defining and naming themes and producing the report. According to Makhuzeni and Barkhuizen (2015, p. 4), the benefit of utilising thematic analysis is that it forestalls a particular view of the substance and guarantees unwavering quality and legitimacy in the qualitative research technique.

Reporting style

The results are presented in the form of tables. Themes are deduced from the interviews conducted with participants and guided by the themes identified from the past research on the same topic. Themes and sub-themes extracted from the interviews are corroborated by direct quotes. Only the findings related to police officers’ view of the condition of total rewards and the extent to which rewards influence their decision to resign are presented.

Results

Table 2 highlights the themes deduced from the interviews with the participants. It gives the frequency within which the themes rose. Eleven themes were distinguished from the combined response of the subjects. Themes that occurred most often are existence of leave opportunities, unfair promotional opportunities, absence of career advancement opportunities, lack of management support and poor performance management.

TABLE 2: Themes deduced from the interviews conducted with participants.

In this study, the model of total rewards by the World at Work Association was utilised as a structure to investigate the police’s view of the total rewards in the work environment. This model comprises six principle classifications, namely, compensation, benefits, work–life effectiveness, recognition, performance management and talent development. Eleven themes that were deduced from the study were grouped into six principle classifications.

Table 3 highlights consolidated themes identified as sub-themes, and principled classifications are identified as main themes.

TABLE 3: Main themes and sub-themes.
Theme: Performance management and recognition

Performance management and recognition was the theme that arose most during the interviews, and it was mentioned 26 times. The sub-theme unfair promotion practices is the most cited theme in the study; it was mentioned 11 times. The high number illustrates the extent to which police officers are not satisfied with the performance recognition, particularly promotion practice.

P3 mentioned:

‘I once made huge arrest of criminals but there was no rewards or incentives for the job well done from the station management or just to say thank you.’ (Sergeant, 12/10/2019)

P10 added:

‘I always worked but my efforts were never recognised by station management. If I was recognised I couldn’t have resigned.’ (Warrant Officer, 15/10/2019)

The sub-theme performance management is the second most cited; it was mentioned eight times. It is an indication that police officers were dissatisfied with performance management system in the police.

P11 mentioned:

‘While working in the South African Police Service I can say there was no clear explanation on how performance management system works and no means of verification of the scores allocated to the employees.’ (Warrant Officer, 20/10/2019)

P9 added:

‘The supervisor gave me performance management rating document to rate myself. I don’t know the criteria used to rate us, there was no guidance.’ (Constable, 13/10/2019)

Theme: Benefits

The theme, benefits, was the second most cited in the study; it was mentioned 19 times. The high number illustrates the view of police officers on the work benefits offered by the police. The sub-theme, existence of leave opportunities (i.e. sick, annual, family responsibility, study), is the most cited benefit; it was mentioned 14 times. The participants seemed to be satisfied with the benefits offered by the SAP.

P1 mentioned:

‘I can say all this benefits work for me especially family responsibility, sick leave, study leave and paid annual leave because with family responsibility leave I have an opportunity to look after my children or if there is death in the family I can arrange burial.’ (Colonel, 04/10/2019)

P2 added:

‘I would say the one that best suits me is the Police medical aid scheme benefit because it is so much affordable when I compare it with other medical aid schemes.’ (Brigadier, 04/10/2019)

Theme: Work–life effectiveness

The theme, work–life balance is the third most mentioned theme in the study. The participants seemed more satisfied with the support given by their families than by their management.

P2 explained:

‘My family of course they are always there for me they encourage me to go on and on when I want to quit.’ (Brigadier, 04/10/2019)

P5 cited:

‘Management does not support members with financial problems or marital problems, they leave members to drown.’ (Constable, 12/10/2019)

P6 added:

‘I needed management support during the time of my ill health condition and was operated but I never received any call or visit from management.’ (Captain, 12/10/2019)

Theme: Career development

The theme, career development, was the fourth mentioned in the study. The sub-theme, absence of career advancement opportunities, was the most cited. The high number of mentioning illustrates the view of police officers on career advancement prospects in the SAP. Most of the members seemed dissatisfied with career development.

P4 explained:

‘The contract I signed stipulates that there is a waiting period of seven years at Constable Rank and automatically moved to the next rank of a Sergeant but it is not happening I am nine years now at Constable Rank.’ (Constable, 12/10/2019)

P7 mentioned:

‘I am serving eighteen years in the same level, there is no growth in South African Police Service. People are promoted through favouritism.’ (Warrant Officer, 13/10/2019)

P14 added:

‘Talking about advancement opportunities this one is a very painful thing in a sense that it is only those close to management who get promoted. My supervisor had told me that even if I apply for promotion he would never consider my application.’ (Constable, 23/10/2019)

According to participants, there is a lack of qualification recognition for career advancement opportunities in the SAP.

P5 mentioned:

‘I have been applying in the police to be placed within human resource management environment so that I can practice what I have learnt in school since I got a degree in human resource management and honours in management. My application is being turned down by station management saying that having the qualification does not mean anything. I have made several applications of promotions but I have never been considered or called for interviews in the police for the past fourteen years but other departments they call me for interviews.’ (Constable, 12/10/2019)

P13 added:

‘The South African Police Service does not consider qualifications. I applied for a post with a person having grade twelve only and the person got the post. When I enquire I was told that experience was considered despite the fact that I have a national diploma.’ (Constable, 13/10/2019)

Theme: Compensation

The theme, compensation, was the least cited in the study when compared with other themes. However, participants mentioned that pay is poor and not adequate to take care of their expenses of living.

P8 mentioned:

‘I have considered quitting this job because junior staff don’t get much recognition and reward in the police and our salary is as little as we cannot do anything with it.’ (Constable, 13/10/2019)

P10 mentioned:

‘The money in the police was not enough. It did not match with the standard of living. I encountered lot of debts through bond house, personal loans and to pay my debts I resigned.’ (Warrant Officer, 15/10/2019)

Discussion

Outline of the results

The fundamental objective of the study was to determine the role of a total rewards strategy in retaining police officers in Limpopo province. Moreover, this study intended to explore police’ impression of the condition of total rewards in the SAP. In addition, this exploration planned to examine how much rewards impact police choice to resign from the SAP.

The model of total rewards by the World at Work Association was utilised as a structure to investigate police members’ impression of total reward in the work environment. This model of total rewards comprises six elements: compensation, benefits, work–life effectiveness, recognition, performance management and talent development. The members indicated that a poor performance management in the SAP, particularly performance recognition. Rewards and appraisals are essential instruments to improve employee performance. Performance recognition is crucial for the enhancement of worker spirit and subsequently lessens pressure, absenteeism and turnover (Makhuzeni & Barkhuizen, 2015, p. 3). If the organisation has a good performance management system, it can easily identify and address poor performance issues. A good performance management system helps the organisation to develop employees by stretching their capabilities. Doing so will provide opportunities for them to grow (McPheat, 2010, p. 9). Research by Faull (2011, p. 18) points out that recognition and motivation are required within the police environment for effective service delivery.

The members in the study appeared to be fairly happy with the benefits offered by SAP. Most of the participants indicated that leave benefits (i.e. study, family, medical and yearly/excursion) are significant components that will keep them in the police. Apart from pay/salary, the employer provides certain benefits such as sickness pay, yearly paid outings, a housing allowance, restorative or medical coverage, adaptable working hours, telecommuting or different areas. These benefits give security to workers and their families (Joshi, 2015, p. 77).

The results revealed that members were satisfied with their work–personal life effectiveness, especially support from families. They stated that families are always there for them, and they encourage them to go on and on until they want to quit. The balance between work and the rest of the employee’s life activities improves staff retention (Munro et al., 2016, p. 3). Makhuzeni and Barkhuizen (2015, p. 3) point out that the flexibility in the workplace improves customer service and employee retention.

The results of this research showed that participants were not satisfied with the performance management system in the SAP in Limpopo. The dissatisfaction has led to resignation by some participants; as a result, the police has lost talented staff. Koekemoer (2014, p. 1) points out that South African organisations are encountering what is known as a brain drain, which refers to the loss of talented workers.

In order to avert this crisis, organisations should set up great conditions and human resource practices that will cater to the distinctive vocational needs of a different staff. According to Diedericks et al. (2013, p. 1), South African human resource managers are experiencing challenges of talent retention, lack of staff recognition and performance management problems.

Lastly, findings revealed that remuneration of police is poor. Members in the study were in agreement that police pay rates are poor and hinder them from carrying on with a sensible personal satisfaction. The finding of the research conducted at Kerensa police station in Gauteng province postulates that police officers receive poor salaries (Faull, 2011, p. 17). Factors such as compensation, recognition and management support were found to be factors that encourage employees to stay in their public institution (Theron et al., 2014, p. 7).

According to Shelton and Renard (2015, p. 4), the financial compensation received by employees from their organisation plays a vital role in the reward management, because employees view it as an indication of their value to the organisation.

To summarise, the findings displayed the elements that will contribute to police officers’ turnover, such as absence of performance recognition, lack of career advancement opportunities, lack of qualification recognition for career advancement, poor performance management and rewards, long after-hour work, lack of management support and unfair promotion practices. Then again, the study additionally demonstrated that the variables that will draw in police officers to stay in the police incorporate work–life effectiveness, study leave, sick leave and family leave. Subsequently, police management is urged to create proper rewards policies and practices to make a sound workplace that will enable it to retain its workforce.

Practical implications

The discoveries of this investigation have noteworthy useful ramifications for the police department. Police management should take note of the risky reward elements, for instance, salary, recognition of performance and career advancement opportunities and actualise remedial measures to retain staff.

Limitations and recommendations

The study had few limitations. On account of the small sample size, the findings of this investigation are not generalisable to the entire police staff. The discoveries of this examination are only appropriate to chosen police stations and cannot be extended to the rest of the province or country.

It is recommended that national police management should work closely together to develop clear performance management policies, systems and processes. The career development opportunities of police officers also need to be enhanced. Future research should be expanded to other provinces to enable the comparison of findings. The findings of this research can be used to develop a reward and remuneration diagnostic tool for police officers, which can be used to more effectively detect the impact of rewards and remuneration on staff turnover.

Conclusion

The main objective of the exploration was to determine the role of a total rewards strategy in the retention of police officers in Limpopo province. Even more expressly, this investigation intended to look into police view on the condition of total rewards in the SAP. Furthermore, this investigation intended to investigate how much rewards impact police choice to leave the SAP.

The objectives of the study were accomplished on the grounds that the discoveries of the exploration have featured the importance of total rewards for the retention of police officers in Limpopo province. The total rewards model of World at Work showed its utility as a framework to benchmark police rewards. The discoveries of this investigation should urge police management to look into its reward practices and take preventive exercises to lessen staff turnover.

Acknowledgements

Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no financial or personal relationship(s) that may have inappropriately influenced them in writing this article.

Authors’ contributions

This article is based on the master’s study of N.R.M. where M.H.R.B. was the supervisor. N.R.M. compiled the article and M.H.R.B. provided editorial inputs.

Ethical consideration

Ethical clearance to conduct this research was obtained from Stadio/Southern Business School on 25 August 2019.

Funding information

This research received no specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial, or not-for profit sector.

Data availability

Data sharing in not applicable to this article as no new data were created or analysed in this study.

Disclaimer

The views and opinions expressed in this article are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the official policy or position of any affiliated agency of the authors.

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