About the Author(s)

Eko Wahjudi Email symbol
Department of Management, Faculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Brawijaya, Malang, Indonesia

Armanu Armanu symbol
Department of Management, Faculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Brawijaya, Malang, Indonesia

Djumilah Hadiwidjojo symbol
Department of Management, Faculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Brawijaya, Malang, Indonesia

Solimun Solimun symbol
Department of Management, Faculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Brawijaya, Malang, Indonesia


Wahjudi, E., Armanu, A., Hadiwidjojo, D., & Solimun, S. (2024). Lecturer performance in focus: An extensive systematic literature review and analysis. SA Journal of Human Resource Management/SA Tydskrif vir Menslikehulpbronbestuur, 22(0), a2477. https://doi.org/10.4102/sajhrm.v22i0.2477

Original Research

Lecturer performance in focus: An extensive systematic literature review and analysis

Eko Wahjudi, Armanu Armanu, Djumilah Hadiwidjojo, Solimun Solimun

Received: 24 Oct. 2023; Accepted: 09 Nov. 2023; Published: 19 Jan. 2024

Copyright: © 2024. The Author(s). Licensee: AOSIS.
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Orientation: Job performance is a critical aspect of the workplace, and understanding the existing literature in this domain is of paramount importance.

Research purpose: This study aims to comprehensively analyse the body of research on job performance, encompassing publications available in Scopus until 2023.

Motivation for the study: The motivation behind this research is to employ bibliometric methods utilising R Biblioshiny to identify pivotal research questions and conduct social network analysis using VOSviewer for structural visualisation.

Research approach/design and method: A meticulous screening process was employed to include 670 relevant journals. The study encompasses various facets, such as annual scientific production, influential sources, local impact (H-Index) of sources, temporal trends in source production, author productivity over time, local impact H-Index of authors, pertinent affiliations, corresponding authors’ countries, the most globally cited documents, thematic mapping and network visualisation.

Main findings: The analysis of the literature revealed a complex network of variables within work performance. Notable aspects include work engagement, employee performance, task performance, organisational citizenship behaviour and personality traits.

Practical/managerial implications: This research provides insights that can inform both practitioners and managers. It sheds light on the intricate web of factors that influence job performance, offering a foundation for improved workplace strategies and policies.

Contribution/value-add: This study significantly contributes to the existing academic corpus by synthesising and visualising the intricate landscape of lecturer performance, filling a substantial gap in job performance research. The findings offer valuable insights for future studies, policymaking and managerial practices, contributing to enhanced work-related outcomes and strategies, particularly in the context of academia.

Keywords: job performance; systematic literature review; employee performance; task performance; organisational citizenship behaviour; personality traits.


Job performance, specifically within the realm of lecturer performance, reflects a significant yet sparsely explored facet of organisational psychology and management studies. It encompasses various dimensions, each presenting a unique viewpoint on its nature. At its fundamental core, lecturer performance, drawing inspiration from Porter and Lawler (1974), is perceived as a function of an individual’s abilities, competencies and efforts within the context of academic instruction. This specialised form of job performance highlights the influence of personal attributes and the educational environment in which lecturers operate, constituting an area of research that remains relatively uncommon within the broader exploration of job performance.

Meyer and Peng (2005) provide a broader view, defining job performance as the output contributed by an individual to their organisation through their behaviour and engagement. This output can be evaluated by the organisation as either productive or counterproductive. Viswesvaran and Ones (2000) expand on this definition by characterising job performance as scalable actions, behaviours and outcomes that employees undertake. These actions are inherently tied to and contribute to the achievement of organisational goals.

Motowidlo et al. (1997) provide a temporal perspective by defining job performance as the overall expected value derived from employees’ behaviours over a specified period. This perspective reflects the increasing concern among human resources and organisational experts about the level of output obtained from workers. Complementing this perspective, Malkanthi and Ali (2016) introduce another dimension of job performance, emphasising the direct assessment of employee productivity. This form of assessment is particularly applicable in manufacturing environments, where job performance is quantified by the quantity of units of acceptable quality produced within specific timeframes. These diverse viewpoints collectively contribute to our understanding of job performance, capturing its multifaceted nature and significance in organisational contexts.

Motowidlo and Kell (2012) underscore the enduring nature of job performance, portraying it as a behaviour consistently demonstrated by individuals to enhance an organisation’s value. This enduring commitment to job performance aligns with Alessandri et al.’s (2017) perspective, which emphasises that job performance holds significance beyond individual efforts. They illuminate its direct connection to outcomes at both the employee and organisational levels, rendering it a subject of considerable interest to scholars and practitioners alike. This far-reaching impact on outcomes that ultimately influence the organisational bottom line underscores the centrality of job performance in the organisational landscape.

In summary, job performance encompasses a spectrum of behaviours and outcomes that individuals exhibit within organisations. It directly influences organisational success and has been a subject of extensive study and interest in various contexts, making it a cornerstone of industrial and organisational psychology research (Borman, 2004; Borman & Motowidlo, 1997; Organ, 1997).

This research employs a bibliometric approach to investigate the research status and development trends within the domain of job performance. Bibliometrics, as defined by Kreps and Neuhauser (2013), is a measurable informatic method that systematically analyses emerging trends and knowledge structures within a specific field, providing quantifiable, reproducible and objective data. This approach has been widely adopted for studying research status and development trends, as highlighted by Liu et al. (2020). Bibliometric analysis not only offers valuable insights into the field of study but also fosters interdisciplinary collaboration, as emphasised by Niu et al. (2014).

Scholars utilise bibliometric analysis for various purposes, including identifying emerging trends in articles and journal performance, exploring collaboration patterns and understanding the constituents of research, as evidenced by Verma and Gustafsson (2020) and Donthu et al. (2020). The scarcity of bibliometric research on job performance using Scopus database-derived data serves as the reason for conducting this study. By doing so, we aim to develop a deeper understanding of the significance of job performance and explore the factors related to it. The findings from this study will make a valuable contribution to the existing and future literature on job performance.

This study aims to answer some of these following research questions:

  • RQ1. How is the annual scientific production in the research about job performance?
  • RQ2. Which are the most relevant sources in the research about job performance?
  • RQ3. How is the sources’ local impact (H-Index) in the research about job performance?
  • RQ4. How is the sources’ production over time in the research about job performance?
  • RQ5. How is the authors’ production over time in the research about job performance?
  • RQ6. How is the authors’ local impact by H-Index in the research about job performance?
  • RQ7. Which are the most relevant affiliations in the research about job performance?
  • RQ8. Which are the corresponding authors’ countries in the research about job performance?
  • RQ9. Which are the most global cited documents in the research about job performance?
  • RQ10. How is the result of thematic map related to research about job performance?
  • RQ11. How is the result of network visualisation related to research about job performance?

We have successfully generated various analyses in this study, including annual scientific production, the most significant sources, sources with local impact (H-Index), production trends over time, authors’ research output over time, authors’ local impact as measured by the H-Index, the most prominent affiliations, corresponding authors’ countries, highly cited global documents, thematic mapping and network visualisation. Additionally, we will provide recommendations for future research and draw our conclusions in the later sections of this paper. The following sections will present the Materials and methods section, the results of the Bibliometric analysis and VOSviewer section, Discussion section and Conclusion section.

Materials and methods

Database, data acquisition and querying

According to Mongeon and Paul-Hus (2016), a common data source for most bibliometric studies is Thomson Reuters’ Web of Science (WoS) and Elsevier’s Scopus. In this research, the data were extracted from the Scopus database. The search query consisted of a set of key terms (article title, abstract or keywords) related to job performance, resulting in a total of 27 462 documents. Subsequently, a filtering process was applied to make the retrieved documents more specific. Only documents that were Open Access and belonged to the subject area of Business, Management and Accounting were included. Furthermore, the document type was restricted to Article and the publication stage had to be Final. Lastly, the source type was limited to Journals, and the language used had to be English.

Table 1 shows the search query that was used to gather data from Scopus. The first journal document about job performance was published in 1970, resulting in a time span of 53 years. A total of 670 journals were retrieved from the utilised search query. The raw data were extracted on 04 October 2023 by exporting it to a BibTeX file for Bibliometric analysis and a RIS file for VOSviewer.

TABLE 1: Search query.
Bibliometric and VOSviewer

The analysis was conducted with the assistance of Rstudio and VOSviewer software. R Package Bibliometrix is a collection of open-source tools designed for quantitative research in scientometrics and bibliometrics. It encompasses all the fundamental methods used in bibliometric analysis (Aria & Cuccurullo, 2017). Bibliometrix enables us to identify the most important documents, journals, countries, authors and institutions. It also helps us examine and visualise research collaboration networks and emerging trends in a particular field of knowledge.

VOSviewer is a software tool for creating and exploring maps based on network data. It was initially designed for examining academic records, but it can be applied to various kinds of network data, like social networks. VOSviewer looks at different types of connections, such as co-authorship, co-occurrence, citation, bibliographic coupling and co-citation links and provides three ways to display the information: as a network, overlay or density visualisation. This tool can show the general characteristics of subject areas, and it offers specific benefits, particularly for clustering analysis (Yang et al., 2019).

Figure 1 is the process diagram of this study.

FIGURE 1: Process diagram of this study.


Main information

Bibliometric analysis results provide a summary of the raw data used. In Table 2, the main information such as Timespan, Total Sources, Total Documents, et cetera are presented. This study uses data from journals published in the period 1970–2023, with a total of 670 journals.

TABLE 2: Main information.

The collected journals are spread over 256 different sources with an annual growth rate percentage of 7.62. The annual growth rate is the increase in the number of documents or scholarly articles indexed in the Scopus database. It gives an idea of how fast the number of documents indexed in Scopus increases from year to year. The average age of the documents is 5.72. This means that the collected journals have been in the Scopus database for almost 6 years. Then, the average number of citations per document is 40.1.

The result has shown that there are a total of 1759 authors, with only 59 documents that are single authored. The co-author per document value is 3.16 and the percentage of international co-authorships is 37.95%. As mentioned before, this study uses only article or journal as document type.

Annual scientific production

Figure 2 shows the annual production of journals about job performance in the period of 1970–2023.

FIGURE 2: Annual scientific production (1970–2023).

The first journal about job performance was published in 1970. The title is ‘Job Performance Comparisons: Mexican-American and Anglo Employees’ by Weaver and Glenn (1970). Then, until the late 1990s, the topic was researched only a few times, with no more than two journals per year, such as in 1982, 1986, 1988, 1989 and 1999. From 2005 on, there was an exponential increase in the number of journals, with a peak of 97 journals in 2022.

Most relevant sources

In Table 3, we can see that only one source has not yet been assigned to the quartile, namely Management Science Letter, with 18 journals about job performance published. Six out of 10 sources are indexed in Q1. The other three are indexed Q2. The quartile index is identified from the Scimago Journal Rank (SJR). Each of the top three sources published 18 journals, namely Journal of Organizational Behavior, Revista de Psicologia del Trabajo y de las Organizaciones and Management Science Letters. Meanwhile, the 10th-ranked source is the Journal of Business and Psychology, with a total of 12 published journals.

TABLE 3: Top 10 most relevant sources (1970–2023).
Sources’ local impact (H-Index)

Table 4 presents the 10 sources with the highest local impact, using the H-Index as an impact comparative parameter (Hirsch, 2005). The higher the H-Index of a source means that journals published by that source about job performance are frequently cited. Journal of Organizational Behavior ranks first with H-Index of 16, a total of 2963 citations and 18 publications about job performance, which was first published in 2002. That means in the Journal of Organizational Behavior, there are 16 journals about job performance that have been cited 16 times or more. Ranked second is the Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, which has an H-Index of 14, with 868 citations and 17 publications. The Journal of Vocational Behavior ranks third with an H-Index of 14 and has been cited as many as 829 times with 17 journal publications about job performance. The fourth ranked source is Revista de Psicologia del Trabajo y de las Organizaciones, with an H-Index of 12, a total of 436 citations and 18 journals published since 2011. Ranked fifth is Personnel Psychology with an H-Index of 11, 2512 citations and 16 publications.

TABLE 4: Top 10 Source’s Local Impact (H-Index) during 2015–2019.
Sources’ production over time

The relevance of a source can be seen from the number of journals published on a topic. Table 5 shows the five sources with the highest production of journals on job performance over the last 5 years. The five sources are the same as the top five most relevant sources discussed earlier. The first ranked is Journal of Organizational Behavior, which published more than 16 journal articles per year for the last 5 years. Next is Management Science Letters in the second place, Revista de Psicologia del Trabajo y de las Organizaciones in the third place, then Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychological in the fourth place and Journal of Vocational Behavior in the fifth place. The production of journal publications in the five sources continues to grow from year to year. The number of journals published by the five sources in 2023 will continue to increase, considering that the latest journal was published in October.

TABLE 5: Sources production overtime.
Authors’ production over time

Figure 3 shows 10 authors with the highest journal productivity in recent years. The more an author researches a specific topic, the more they can be said to be concerned and an expert on that topic. Bakker AB is the author with the highest productivity who consistently researches job performance. Bakker began productively researching job performance in 2014 by publishing two journals and the most publications in 2016, with three journals. In 10 years, Bakker has published 14 journals. The next author is De Clercq, who began researching job performance in 2019 by publishing two journals and continuing to conduct research until 2023. In total, he has published seven journals. Lievens F is the third author with the most journals on job performance. He published his journals in 2007, 2008, 2013, 2014, 2022 and 2023 with a total of seven journals. Next is Borgogni L, who annually examines job performance from 2015 to 2020. In total, he has published six journals. In fifth place is Demerouti E, who has published six journals.

FIGURE 3: Authors’ production over time about job performance.

Authors’ local impact by H-Index

Table 6 shows the impact of authorship. The top author is Bakker A.B., who has published 13 journals related to job performance, and these 13 journals have received a minimum of 13 citations, so it has an H-Index of 13 and a total number of citations of 1014. Bakker is followed by De Clercq D., Demerouti E. and Lievens F. with an H-Index of 6 and cited 134, 437 and 229 times, respectively. Borgogni L. and Salgado J.F. follow with journals that have been cited 232 and 152 times. Both of them have an H-Index of 5.

TABLE 6: Authors’ local impact by H-Index.
Most relevant affiliations

Table 7 shows the ranking of universities affiliated with authors who researched job performance. The first ranked is University of Groningen with 19 journals, second is Erasmus University Rotterdam with 18 journals, third is Brock University with 11 journals, fourth is Ghent University with 10 journals, fifth is Curtin University with nine journals, sixth is The Hong Kong Polytechnic University with nine journals, seventh is University of Bath with nine journals, eighth is Universiti Utara Malaysia with eight journals, ninth is University of Calabar with eight journals and last is University of London with eight journals. Based on the table, it can be seen that the top four affiliations are universities in Europe and only two affiliated universities are located in Asia, which are The Hong Kong Polytechnic University and Universiti Utara Malaysia.

TABLE 7: Top 10 most relevant authors’ affiliations.
Corresponding authors’ countries

Figure 4 and Table 8 provide insights into the countries of the corresponding authors. The corresponding author, as defined by Mattsson et al. (2011), is the author responsible for submitting the article to the journal editor and handling all related correspondence. Typically, their email address is prominently displayed on the article’s first page, serving as a point of contact for other interested researchers.

FIGURE 4: Corresponding authors’ country.

TABLE 8: The intra-country (SCP) and inter-country (MCP) collaboration indices.

The leading position is held by the USA, with a total of 77 articles. Among these, 58 articles, or 75%, are authored by individuals based in the USA. The United Kingdom secures the second position with 46 articles. Interestingly, the majority of corresponding authors for these articles, 28 out of 46 (61%), are located outside the United Kingdom. Moving to the third position, the Netherlands accounts for a total of 45 articles, of which 27 have corresponding authors based in the Netherlands. China follows closely behind with 41 articles and among them, 17 have corresponding authors from China. Within the top 10, Indonesia holds the smallest MCP ratio, ranking sixth with a ratio of 0.15. This indicates that only four out of 24 articles in this category have corresponding authors from Indonesia.

Most global cited documents

In order to assess the distribution of the most impactful publications in the job performance field, we have compiled and displayed the top 10 journals with the highest number of citations in Table 9.

TABLE 9: Top 10 journals with the most citations.

The journals in Table 8 are published by various sources. Journal of Organizational Behavior is the source with the most journal publications included in the list, namely with three journals, followed by Academy of Management that published two journals. The journal with the most citations is titled ‘Work engagement: A quantitative review and test of its relations with task and contextual performance’ written by Christian et al. (2011) with a total of 1636 citations and cited 126 times per year. The second ranked is a journal written by Barrick et al. (2001) with the title ‘Personality and performance at the beginning of the new millennium: What do we know and where do we go next?’, which has been cited 1483 times. Next is a journal entitled ‘Employees’ goal orientations, the quality of leader-member exchange and the outcomes of job performance and job satisfaction’ by Janssen and Van Yperen (2004). The total citations of the journal are 941. At the fourth place is ‘Is customer participation in value creation a double-edged sword? Evidence from professional financial services across cultures’ written by Chan et al. (2010) with a total citation of 747. In the fifth rank is the journal written by Riketta (2002) entitled ‘Attitudinal organizational commitment and job performance: a meta-analysis’ and has been cited as much as 650 and per year; it is cited almost 30 times.

Thematic map: Strategic diagram

Figure 5 displays the structural layout of the analysis conducted, presenting a strategic diagram. The horizontal axis, referred to as density, quantifies the ratio of existing relationships to the highest possible number of relationships. Network density for each group falls within the 0 to 1 range, where a value of 0 indicates the absence of any connections among group members, while a value of 1 signifies complete interconnection among all group members, representing the highest achievable level of relationships among them (Wasserman & Faust, 1994).

FIGURE 5: Thematic map of job performance.

The vertical axis represents centrality, which refers to the characteristic identifying nodes with the greatest number of links within a network (Wasserman & Faust, 1994). Actors with higher centrality may possess a favourable position relative to others, as they have a greater number of alternatives to fulfil their requirements, increased access to resources and are typically perceived as less dependent.

The strategic diagram represents four quadrants, which are Motor Themes; Peripheral and Marginal Themes; Emerging or Disappearing Themes and Generic and Transversal Themes:

  • Niche themes: Situated in the upper-left quadrant, these themes allude to topics that hold a peripheral and marginal position. The study has detected a cluster encompassing two sub-themes: coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and personnel. While these subjects are internally well developed, they remain detached from the broader array of topics and bear marginal significance within the realm of scientific research.
  • Motor themes: Located in the upper-right quadrant, motor themes denote thoroughly developed and significant themes. The research has recognised four clusters comprising some sub-themes. Cluster 1 human, article and employee. Cluster 2, job performance, job satisfaction and male. Cluster 3, adult, job stress and questionnaire. Cluster 4, human resource management, industrial management and organisational performance. These themes hold notable significance in shaping the scientific domain owing to their substantial centrality and dense connections.
  • Emerging or declining themes: Depicted in the lower-left quadrant, emerging or declining themes allude to underdeveloped themes or those undergoing a fading process. The analysis has unveiled three emerging clusters characterised by some sub-themes: Cluster 1 is enterprise system implementation. Cluster 2 is working conditions. Cluster 3 is performance assessment.
  • Basic themes: Illustrated in the lower-right quadrant are the fundamental and cross-cutting themes within the examined scientific field. The analysis has identified two clusters encompassing the following sub-themes: Cluster 1 is behavioural research. Cluster 2 is employment. These subjects are fundamental in nature and are not extensively developed, yet they hold significance within the scientific field.
Network visualisation

Figure 6 is the output of Network Visualisation. Network Visualisation uses VOSviewer, which functions to show the network between visualised topics. Based on 670 journals searched through Scopus with the theme ‘job performance’ using the VOSviewer application, the results show that there are several clusters marked with different colours. The picture shows that there are still several variables that have never been used in journals with the theme of job performance. These variables include work engagement, employee performance, task performance, organisational citizenship behaviours and personality traits. If used, these variables can be a novelty in job performance journals because it is still rare to use these variables.

FIGURE 6: Network visualisation of job performance.


This study conducted a bibliometric analysis to determine the development of journals that focus on job performance. The results of the analysis show several things that can be noted:

  • This study collected journals on job performance from Scopus with a total of 670 journals. The annual growth rate obtained is 7.62%. This means that the development of job performance topics is quite high. In the last 10 years, the topic of job performance has grown exponentially to reach 97 published journals in 2022. The document average age obtained is 5.72 years, meaning that most of the journals are still relevant today because they are not too old.
  • Journal of Organizational Behavior, which is currently indexed Q1 in SJR, is the most relevant source and publishes the most journals on job performance with a total of 18 journals. In addition, the source has an H-Index of 16, meaning that the 16 journals published by the source have been cited more than 16 times. Meanwhile, the total citation has reached 2963. In the last 5 years, Journal of Organizational Behavior has consistently published more than 16 journals on job performance each year, making it the source with the highest productivity.
  • The most relevant author is Prof. Arnold Bastiaan Bakker. He has been the most prolific author publishing journals on job performance in the last 10 years. He has produced 14 journals in that period. With his productivity, Bakker got an H-Index of 13, with a total of 1014 citations. His first journal on job performance was titled ‘Burnout and job performance: The moderating role of selection, optimisation, and compensation strategies’ in collaboration with Evangelia Demerouti and Michael Leiter in 2014.
  • The most relevant affiliation is the University of Groningen that is located in the Netherlands. The university has produced 19 job performance journals. Founded in 1614, the university is the second oldest in the country. The institution has been consistently ranked among the top 100 universities in the world. Six of the 10 universities included in the list are universities in Europe. This shows that job performance is more researched or studied in the European region than in other continents.
  • Based on corresponding authors’ countries, the USA ranks first with a total of 77 journals, 58 of which are USA-based authors. This is followed by the United Kingdom with 46 journals and 18 of them are UK-based authors. Among the top 10 countries, Indonesia has the lowest inter-country (MCP) ratio of 0.15. Of the 26 journals published, only six journals have corresponding authors who are not Indonesian-based authors.
  • The journal entitled ‘Work engagement: A quantitative review and examination of its relationship with task and contextual performance’ written by Christian et al. (2011) became the most cited journal, with 1646 citations and 126 total citations per year. The journal aimed to identify an agreed definition of engagement, investigate its uniqueness and clarify the construct’s nomological network. The results of the study were:
  1. Researchers found that engagement demonstrated discriminant validity of, and criterion-related validity for, work attitudes.

  2. Researchers also found that engagement is related to several key antecedents and consequences.

  3. The results also showed that engagement is related to job performance that seems to indicate incremental validity of job attitudes in predicting performance.

  • As shown in the strategic diagram, many sub-themes are included in the motor themes. These sub-themes are emerging and significant to the theme of job performance. Sub-themes such as human resource management, industrial performance, organisational performance and job stress are themes that are relevant and possible to continue to be researched into the future, because job performance must continue to follow the changes that occur in the industrial and organisational world.
  • The network visualisation shows several variables that can be studied regarding work performance, such as work engagement, employee performance, task performance, organisational citizenship behaviour and personality traits.


Some important results to note from this research are that the Q1 indexed Journal of Organizational Behavior (SJR, 2022) is the source with the highest relevance on the topic of job performance, specifically within the domain of lecturer performance. This specific journal stands out as a pivotal resource contributing substantially to the scholarly discourse on lecturer performance within the broader scope of job performance studies. In addition, the source has an H-Index of 16, and in the last 5 years, they published more than 16 journals on job performance. This means that the source can be a recommendation for future researchers who will focus on the scope of job performance. Furthermore, journals by Prof. Arnold Bastiaan Bakker can be a reference in researching job performance, because his research are considered relevant with a total of more than 1000 citations. The journal by Christian et al. (2011) has been cited 1636 times, making it the journal with the highest total citations, so it deserves to be a reference in research about job performance.

Some constraints about the bibliometric method have been found. (1) The data used in bibliometric analysis are important for the accurate and comprehensive understanding of the target field or journal. The development of publication data extraction software will be helpful for getting more extensive and accurate base data. (2) The methods of data pre-processing are not perfect; there are some sections that are not working sometimes, like the cluster analysis. (3) There are still some problems in visualisation, such as cluster overlap and low flexibility in parameter setting.


The authors extend their thanks to all those who provided assistance during the design phase, which ultimately resulted in the generation of this article.

Competing interests

The authors have declared that no competing interest exists.

Authors’ contributions

Conceptualisation and project oversight were primarily handled by E.W. and A.A., with D.H. contributing to the methodology. S.S. was responsible for software development, while validation and data curation were jointly managed by D.H. and E.W. Formal analysis and investigation were led by E.W., who also secured the necessary resources for the project. The initial draft of the manuscript was prepared by E.W., with A.A. providing valuable input during the review and editing process. E.W. also took charge of data visualisation, while project administration and funding acquisition were overseen by S.S. It is important to note that all authors have thoroughly reviewed and approved the final version of the manuscript for publication.

Ethical considerations

This article followed all ethical standards for research without direct contact with human or animal subjects.

Funding information

This research received no specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.

Data availability

Data sharing does not apply to this article as no new data were created or analysed in this study.


The views and opinions expressed in this article are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the official policy or position of any affiliated agency of the authors.


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